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Articles

Salivary Oxytocin Response Graph

Rigor and Reproducibility: A Breakthrough for Salivary Oxytocin Testing

With the increased interest and important role of Oxytocin (OT) in mammalian behavior, physiology and disease, and the difficulty in acquiring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), there is a critical need to establish valid and reliable methods to measure oxytocin in peripheral fluids.  Oxytocin levels have been measured in blood, breast milk, urine, and CSF, but each [...]
Salivary Alpha Amylase

Technical Bulletin – Running Multiple Alpha-Amylase Strips

The Salimetrics Alpha-Amylase Kinetic Reaction Assay Kit (Item #1-1902) may take some practice to get comfortable with the timing of the assay. Salimetrics’ advice is to start slow – one strip at a time with controls – then work up to more strips as you get more comfortable and confident with the assay. There are [...]
Saliva Collection Handbook Icon

Saliva Collection Handbook

About Salimetrics Salimetrics leads the industry in supporting thousands of salivary bioscience researchers around the world with the most accurate, highest-quality, salivary assays, saliva collection devices, and saliva testing services.  Dedicated to the field of salivary bioscience, Salimetrics assays have been used in more saliva-related published papers than any other salivary assay in the field. [...]
Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Saliva

Measuring SIgA in Saliva

SIgA Levels in Saliva are Affected by Its Mechanism of Entry Unlike the various other salivary anti-microbial proteins that are synthesized directly in the saliva glands, or serum-derived analytes such as the steroid hormones that enter saliva by passive diffusion, Secretory IgA (SIgA) is a product of the adaptive immune system. Plasma B cells formed [...]
Entry of Cortisol & DHEA-S into Saiva

The Entry of Substances into Saliva and the Effect of Flow Rate on Their Concentrations

The major pathway into saliva for most steroid hormones and other small, neutral molecules is by passive diffusion.  The salivary glands are surrounded by dense beds of capillaries, and many blood components pass easily through the capillary walls, bathing the saliva glands. The neutral steroids diffuse readily through the lipo-protein membranes of the secretory cells [...]
Example OXTR Data From Saliva

Collecting and Handling Saliva for DNA Analysis

DNA in Saliva The DNA in saliva originates from cells that are shed from the inner linings of the mouth and from white blood cells. These DNA-containing cells are collected, and the DNA is then extracted by various methods. SNP Genotyping From Saliva Samples Easy and accurate salivary DNA analysis enables the genotyping of well-characterized [...]
Baby Saliva Collection Example

Saliva Collection from Infants and Small Children for Research Studies

Studies have reported that some older preschoolers are able to donate saliva samples by spitting or drooling, (1,2) but researchers have generally found that using some sort of absorbent device is the best way to collect saliva from young children. Parents often have a better chance of getting the child to accept the device into [...]
Inter- and Intra-Assay Coefficients of Variability

Calculating Inter- and Intra-Assay Coefficients of Variability

In order to express the precision, or repeatability, of immunoassay test results, researchers in the social and behavioral sciences typically report two measures of the Coefficient of Variability (CV) in their publications: the Inter-Assay CV and the Intra-Assay CV. The CV is a dimensionless number defined as the standard deviation of a set of measurements [...]
Cotinine in Saliva

Using Salivary Cotinine Assay to Determine Smoking Status

One of the difficulties encountered in identifying smokers by self report is that there are many different ideas of what constitutes smoking behavior. For example, when asked about their smoking status, light or intermittent smokers will often classify themselves as nonsmokers. In order to maintain consistency in the use of various terms while gathering data [...]
Salivary IL-6

Collecting and Handling Saliva Samples for Cytokine Analysis

As was noted in the Spit Tip from our Bulletin devoted to salivary CRP (April 2011), limited information may exist on the best ways to collect and handle saliva for the analysis of many novel biomarkers. In the case of salivary cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-a, however, the modest amount of work that [...]
Salivary ELISA Kit

Tips for Running Salimetrics Assays

To obtain consistent results, it is important to always use the same methods, equipment, timing, etc., when testing saliva samples. Salimetrics recommends that all saliva samples be frozen, thawed and centrifuged before use in our assays. (Freezing precipitates particulate matter and mucins.)  Note:  This process must be repeated every time a sample is refrozen, as [...]
Cotinine Ranges in Saliva Assay

Guidelines for Interpreting Cotinine Levels: United States

The following guidelines are based largely on the work of Neal Benowitz, et.al. These numbers were derived from serum cotinine values as measured by HPLC/MS. Note that optimal cut‐points differ by race/ethnicity and sex. We encourage you to read the entire text of the 2009 article. (1) Race/Ethnicity Adult Cutoff Adolescent Cutoff Non‐Hispanic whites 5 [...]
C-Reactive Protein in Saliva

Collecting and Handling Saliva for Analysis of Novel Protein and Peptide Markers

Saliva contains numerous protein-degrading enzymes, and levels of these enzymes are elevated in individuals with periodontal disease. (Watanabe et al., 1981; Ingman et al., 1993; Uitto et al., 1990) It is thought that many of these enzymes originate from inflammatory cells or microbes present in the mouth, but proteases and peptidases have also been identified [...]
Salivary Cortisol Results Sample Graph

Interpreting Differences in ELISA/EIA Results

Occasionally, differences in ELISA/EIA results are observed from what is expected. In most cases, these differences relate to one or more factors: kit storage conditions, faulty laboratory equipment, technician error, or other factors that are likely to be causing the poor performance. If kit users experience OD readings that seem to be abnormal, they should [...]
Salivary Alpha Amylase

Correcting Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity for Flow Rate

Although a recent paper* has stated that salivary α-amylase (sAA) concentrations are not affected by saliva flow rates, Salimetrics is aware that this matter is currently being re-examined.  Until the question of flow-rate dependency for sAA is definitively settled, Salimetrics is advising customers to record data on saliva flow rates (mL/min) whenever sAA activity is [...]