Salivary Cytokine Collection Protocol
Collection volume, general considerations, and basic guidelines to maximize salivary Cytokine sample integrity. Use this analyte-specific collection protocol to plan you collection methodology and sampling schemes.
3. Technical Summary
|Optimum Collection Volume:||100 μL|
|Assay Range:||0.37 – 4760 pg/mL|
*Available as part of the Salimetrics Cytokine Panel - Not available as an individual test*Human interferon gamma (IFN-γ, IFN-gamma) is mainly produced by lymphocytes as a glycosylated 19.3 kilo Dalton (kDa) cytokine that exists as a non-covalently linked homodimer. In general, IFN-gamma is a central regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses mounted against viral infection, mediates cell mediated immunity such as anti-tumor immune responses and is a hallmark of T helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses (1,2). In this capacity, IFN-gamma is a potent activator of macrophages and induces Class I and Class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) expression. When IFN-gamma is expressed by Th1 lymphocytes, it polarizes the T cell response towards Th1 in a positive feedback loop by inducing Th1 differentiation from Th0 cells, while suppressing Th2 differentiation. Measurements of IFN-gamma can be used to identify T-cell driven pathology. Dysregulation of IFN-gamma is associated with a number of disorders including autoimmune diseases, Huntington’s disease and IFN-gamma levels are increased during hepatitis C infection and Tuberculosis (3). IFN-gamma may also be used as a general indicator of active viral infection. Since IFN-gamma is elevated during stress induced reactivation of herpes virus family members, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1) or Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), it is possible that levels of salivary IFN-gamma may be used as a marker for stress related immune suppression. This use of IFN-gamma as a surrogate for stress induced immune suppression is an area of research that may add to others, such as cortisol, in the stress field of study.
References & Salivary IFN-gamma Research
- Kak G, Raza M, Tiwari BK. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma): Exploring its implications in infectious diseases. Biomol Concepts. 2018;9(1):64-79.
- Ivashkiv LB. IFNgamma: signalling, epigenetics and roles in immunity, metabolism, disease and cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018;18(9):545-58.
- MacLean E, Broger T, Yerlikaya S, Fernandez-Carballo BL, Pai M, Denkinger CM. A systematic review of biomarkers to detect active tuberculosis. Nat Microbiol. 2019;4(5):748-58.
- Rajendran P, Chen YF, Chen YF, Chung LC, Tamilselvi S, Shen CY, et al. The multifaceted link between inflammation and human diseases. Journal of cellular physiology. 2018;233(9):6458-71.
- Val M, Sidoti Pinto GA, Manini L, Gandolfo S, Pentenero M. Variations of salivary concentration of cytokines and chemokines in presence of oral squamous cell carcinoma. A case-crossover longitudinal prospective study. Cytokine. 2019;120:62-5.
- Wang X, Kaczor-Urbanowicz KE, Wong DT. Salivary biomarkers in cancer detection. Med Oncol. 2017;34(1):7.
- Huck O, Buduneli N, Bravo D. Inflammatory Mediators in Periodontal Pathogenesis. Mediators Inflamm. 2019;2019:2610184.
- Silva N, Abusleme L, Bravo D, Dutzan N, Garcia-Sesnich J, Vernal R, et al. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases. J Appl Oral Sci. 2015;23(3):329-55.
- Gaba FI, Sheth CC, Veses V. Salivary biomarkers and their efficacies as diagnostic tools for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2018.
- Slavish DC, Graham-Engeland JE, Smyth JM, Engeland CG. Salivary markers of inflammation in response to acute stress. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2015;44:253-69.</li
- Sheth CC, Lopez-Pedrajas RM, Jovani-Sancho MDM, et al. Modulation of salivary cytokines in response to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption: a pilot study. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):16687.