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Salivary TNF-Alpha

Salivary TNF-Alpha Quick Start Research Guide

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1. How to collect Salivary TNF-Alpha


Passive Drool Saliva Collection Kit

SalivaBio Passive Drool Method

Use With: Adults, Children 6+

Salivary TNF-Alpha Collection Protocol

Collection volume, general considerations, and basic guidelines to maximize salivary TNF-alpha sample integrity. Use this analyte-specific collection protocol to plan you collection methodology and sampling schemes.


2. How to Assay for Salivary TNF-Alpha

Easy and accurate results from the most trusted Salivary Bioscience Laboratory.

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Order Code5291


3. Technical Summary

Analyte Summary
Analyte: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha
Aliases: TNF-Alpha, TNF-α, cachectin
Serum-Saliva Correlation: NA
*Optimum Collection Volume: 425 μL
*Add 300 µl to the total volume of all tests for liquid handling
Assay Summary
Methodology: ECL
Sensitivity: 0.106 pg/mL
Assay Range: 0.04 - 1360 pg/mL
Assay Type: Quantitative


*Also available as part of the Salimetrics Cytokine Panel*

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-Alpha) is a member of a family of small biologically active proteins known as cytokines.  TNF-α  plays a key role in the innate inflammatory response in vertebrates. When macrophages and T cells detect an invading pathogen, they produce TNF-α, triggering local production of chemokines and additional cytokines, which then attract and activate leukocytes at the infection site. (1-4)  TNF-α also participates in the development of acquired immunity from the infection. (5) TNF-α plays a role in numerous other processes throughout the body, including remodeling of tissues and causing apoptosis of tumor cells. (6)  Dysregulation of TNF-α production is involved in periodontal disease, heart disease, auto-immune conditions, and osteoarthritis. (7-11)  Messenger RNA for TNF-α has been found in tissues of healthy human labial salivary glands, and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up-or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells. (12) The epithelial cells in the salivary glands are active participants in the autoimmune-mediated process of Sjögren’s syndrome, and TNF-α levels are increased in that disease. (12,13)  Relationships between TNF-α levels in blood and saliva are not fully understood.​

References & Salivary TNF-Alpha Research

      1. Czermak, B.J., Sarma, V., Bless, N.M., et al. (1999).  In vitro and in vivo dependency of chemokine generation on C5a and TNF-α.  J Immunol, 162(4), 2321-25.
      2. Tanabe, K., Matsushima-Nishiwaki, R., Yamaguchi, S., et al. (2010).  Mechanisms of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced interleukin-6 synthesis in glioma cells.  J Neuroinflammation, 7, 16.
      3. Sternberg, E.M. (2006).  Neural regulation of innate immunity: A coordinated nonspecific host response to pathogens.  Nat Rev Immunol, 6(4), 318-28.
      4. Heller, R.A., Krönke, M. (1994).  Tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated signaling pathways.  J Cell Biol, 126(1), 5-9.)
      5. Mastroeni, P., Ménager, N. (2003).  Development of acquired immunity to Salmonella.  J Med Microbiol, 52(pt 6), 453-59.
      6. Goodsell, D.S. (2006).  The molecular perspective: Tumor necrosis factor.  Oncologist, 11(1), 83-4.
      7. Giannobile, W.V., Beikler, T., Kinney, J.S., et al. (2009). Saliva as a diagnostic tool for periodontal disease: Current state and future directions.  Periodontology 2000, 50, 52-64.
      8. Torre-Amione, G., Kapadia, S., Lee, J., et al. (1996).  Tumor necrosis factor-α and tumor necrosis factor receptors in the failing human heart.  Circulation, 93(4), 704-11.
      9. Kulkarni, K., Selesniemi, K, Brown, T.L. (2006). Interferon-gamma sensitizes the human salivary gland cell line, HSG, to tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced activation of dual apoptotic pathways.  Apoptosis, 11(12), 2205-15.
      10. Wu, A.J., Chen, Z.J., Tsokos, M. et al (1996),  Interferon-gamma induced cell death in a cultured human salivary gland cell line. J Cell Physiol, 167(2), 297-304.
      1. Fernandes, J.C., Martel-Pelletier, J., Pelletier, J.P. (2002). The role of cytokines in osteoarthritis pathophysiology.  Biorheology, 39(1-2), 237-46.
      2. Sun, D., Emmert-Buck, M.R., Fox, P.C. (1998).  Differential cytokine mRNA expression in human labial minor salivary glands in primary Sjögren’s syndrome.  Autoimmunity, 28(3), 125-37.
      3. Fox, R.I., Kang, H.I, Ando, D., et al. (1994).  Cytokine mRNA expression in salivary gland biopsies of Sjögren’s syndrome.  J Immunol, 152(11), 5532-39.

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