*Also available as part of the Salimetrics Cytokine Panel*Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-Alpha) is a member of a family of small biologically active proteins known as cytokines. TNF-α plays a key role in the innate inflammatory response in vertebrates. When macrophages and T cells detect an invading pathogen, they produce TNF-α, triggering local production of chemokines and additional cytokines, which then attract and activate leukocytes at the infection site. (1-4) TNF-α also participates in the development of acquired immunity from the infection. (5) TNF-α plays a role in numerous other processes throughout the body, including remodeling of tissues and causing apoptosis of tumor cells. (6) Dysregulation of TNF-α production is involved in periodontal disease, heart disease, auto-immune conditions, and osteoarthritis. (7-11) Messenger RNA for TNF-α has been found in tissues of healthy human labial salivary glands, and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up-or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells. (12) Read More...
The epithelial cells in the salivary glands are active participants in the autoimmune-mediated process of Sjögren’s syndrome, and TNF-α levels are increased in that disease. (12,13) Relationships between TNF-α levels in blood and saliva are not fully understood.
|Analyte:||Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha|
|Aliases:||TNF-Alpha, TNF-α, cachectin|
|Optimum Collection Volume:||425 μL*|
|Assay Range:||0.0314-380 pg/mL|
Collect Saliva Samples
TNF-ALPHA SALIVA COLLECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Better results begin with better saliva collection. This collection protocol features general considerations to maximize salivary TNF-Alpha analysis. Use this analyte specific collection protocol to plan your collection methodology and sampling schemes.
Test Saliva Samples
|Order Code (lab):||5291|
|Transport Requirements:||Ship on Dry Ice|
|Related Panels and Profiles:||Salivary Cytokine Panel|
The validated method used by Salimetrics is proprietary and not available in assay kit form at this time.
Add DNA Analysis to My Study
Considerations for adding Salivary DNA to analyte Studies:
You can combine salivary analytes with easy, accurate, and affordable genomic testing using Salimetrics SalivaLab and the same sample that you are already collecting – no specialized saliva collection devices or additional samples are required.
Don’t know what SNPs are right for you? The SalivaLab’s DNA team specializes in genetic testing services, we recommend you Request a DNA Consult (gratis) to learn more about common considerations such as # of samples, participant ethnicity, and IRB Approval.
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References & Salivary TNF-Alpha Research
- Czermak, B.J., Sarma, V., Bless, N.M., et al. (1999). In vitro and in vivo dependency of chemokine generation on C5a and TNF-α. J Immunol, 162(4), 2321-25.
- Tanabe, K., Matsushima-Nishiwaki, R., Yamaguchi, S., et al. (2010). Mechanisms of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced interleukin-6 synthesis in glioma cells. J Neuroinflammation, 7, 16.
- Sternberg, E.M. (2006). Neural regulation of innate immunity: A coordinated nonspecific host response to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol, 6(4), 318-28.
- Heller, R.A., Krönke, M. (1994). Tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated signaling pathways. J Cell Biol, 126(1), 5-9.)
- Mastroeni, P., Ménager, N. (2003). Development of acquired immunity to Salmonella. J Med Microbiol, 52(pt 6), 453-59.
- Goodsell, D.S. (2006). The molecular perspective: Tumor necrosis factor. Oncologist, 11(1), 83-4.
- Giannobile, W.V., Beikler, T., Kinney, J.S., et al. (2009). Saliva as a diagnostic tool for periodontal disease: Current state and future directions. Periodontology 2000, 50, 52-64.
- Torre-Amione, G., Kapadia, S., Lee, J., et al. (1996). Tumor necrosis factor-α and tumor necrosis factor receptors in the failing human heart. Circulation, 93(4), 704-11.
- Kulkarni, K., Selesniemi, K, Brown, T.L. (2006). Interferon-gamma sensitizes the human salivary gland cell line, HSG, to tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced activation of dual apoptotic pathways. Apoptosis, 11(12), 2205-15.
- Wu, A.J., Chen, Z.J., Tsokos, M. et al (1996), Interferon-gamma induced cell death in a cultured human salivary gland cell line. J Cell Physiol, 167(2), 297-304.
- Fernandes, J.C., Martel-Pelletier, J., Pelletier, J.P. (2002). The role of cytokines in osteoarthritis pathophysiology. Biorheology, 39(1-2), 237-46.
- Sun, D., Emmert-Buck, M.R., Fox, P.C. (1998). Differential cytokine mRNA expression in human labial minor salivary glands in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Autoimmunity, 28(3), 125-37.
- Fox, R.I., Kang, H.I, Ando, D., et al. (1994). Cytokine mRNA expression in salivary gland biopsies of Sjögren’s syndrome. J Immunol, 152(11), 5532-39.