When uric acid concentrations are elevated in a condition known as hyperuricemia, significant harmful health effects result. Blood uric acid levels above 7 mg/dl lead to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. After sustained hyperuricemia, these MSU crystals deposit in tendons and joints to cause severe diseases including gout, kidney stones and several forms of kidney disease. Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis worldwide and frequent monitoring of uric acid levels is critical for disease management. In the case of kidney stones, approximately 5-10% of the 3.3 million Americans seeking medical care for kidney stones are due to elevated uric acid. High blood uric acid levels are also associated with a wide variety of diseases including hypertension, increased cardiovascular mortality, obesity and metabolic syndrome.
|Aliases:||urate, acid urate, monosodium urate|
|Optimum Collection Volume:||25 μL*|
|High consumption of alcohol beverages (particularly beer), fructose and diets high in purine-rich foods can alter Uric Acid levels.
Several drugs may alter Uric Acid levels (Moriwaki 2014).
|Assay Range:||0.07- 20 mg/dL|
Collect Saliva Samples
URIC ACID SALIVA COLLECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Better results begin with better saliva collection. This collection protocol features general considerations to maximize salivary Uric Acid analysis. Use this analyte specific collection protocol to plan your collection methodology and sampling schemes.
APPROVED SALIVARY URIC ACID COLLECTION METHODS
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Considerations for adding Salivary DNA to analyte Studies:
You can combine salivary analytes with easy, accurate, and affordable genomic testing using Salimetrics SalivaLab and the same sample that you are already collecting – no specialized saliva collection devices or additional samples are required.
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References & Salivary Uric Acid Research
- Riis JL, et al. (2018). The validity, stability, and utility of measuring uric acid in saliva. Biomark Med. 12(6):583-596.
- Woerner J. (2019). Salivary uric acid: Associations with resting and reactive blood pressure response to social evaluative stress in healthy African Americans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 101: 19-26.
- Galassi FM, Borghi C. (2015). A brief history of uric acid: From gout to cardiovascular risk factor. Eur J Intern Med, 26(5), 373.
- Pohanka M. (2014). Alzheimer’s disease and oxidative stress: a review. Curr Med Chem, 21(3), 356-64.
- Goodman AM, et al. (2016). The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level. Neuroscience. 339:396-401.
- Lu N, Dubreuil M, Zhang Y, Neogi T, Rai SK, Ascherio A, et al. (2016). Gout and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based, BMI-matched cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis, 75(3): 547-51.
- Lippi G, Montagnana M, Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G. (2008). The paradoxical relationship between serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease. Clin Chim Acta, 392(1-2), 1-7.
- Soukup M, Biesiada I, Henderson A, Idowu B, Rodeback D, Ridpath L, et al. (2012). Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome. Diabetol Metab Syndr, 4(1), 14.
- Xia Y, Peng C, Zhou Z, Cheng P, Sun L, Peng Y, et al. (2012). [Clinical significance of saliva urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels in patients with chronic kidney disease]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 37(11), 1171-6.
- Nunes LA, Brenzikofer R, Macedo DV. (2011). Reference intervals for saliva analytes collected by a standardized method in a physically active population. Clin Biochem, 44(17-18), 1440-4.
- Martínez AD, et al. (2017). Association between body mass index and salivary uric acid among Mexican-origin infants, youth and adults: Gender and developmental differences. Dev Psychobiol. 59(2):225-234.
- Goll RD, Mookerjee BK. (1978). Correlation of biochemical parameters in serum and saliva in chronic azotemic patients and patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Dial, 2(4), 399-44.
- Glantzounis GK, Tsimoyiannis EC, Kappas AM, Galaris DA. (2005). Uric acid and oxidative stress. Curr Pharm Des, 11(32), 4145-51.
- Ames BN, Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Hochstein P. (1981). Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 78(11):6858-62.
- Rees F, Hui M, Doherty M. (2014). Optimizing current treatment of gout. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 10(5), 271-83.