Low levels have been associated with a range of diseases. (1,5) DHEA is also produced in the brain, where it serves as a protective neurosteroid. (8,9)
Like cortisol, DHEA synthesis in the adrenal gland is affected by HPA axis activity and the release of ACTH, and DHEA levels increase in response to stress. (10) Differences in the secretion of the two hormones can exist however, and changes in the ratio of cortisol to DHEA have been observed in connection with various disorders, including depression, psychiatric conditions, and HIV infection. (11-14) DHEA exhibits a diurnal rhythm synchronized with cortisol, with highest values in the morning and a nadir in the late evening. (15)
In blood DHEA is only weakly bound to albumin or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). (16,17) Unbound DHEA enters saliva from blood via intracellular mechanisms, and the serum-saliva correlation is high. (18,19)
|Aliases:||DHEA, androstenolone, 3ß-hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one|
|Optimum Collection Volume:||125 μL*|
|Assay Range:||10.2 pg/mL - 1000 pg/mL|
Collect Saliva Samples
DHEA SALIVA COLLECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Better results begin with better saliva collection. This collection protocol features general considerations to maximize salivary DHEA analysis. Use this analyte-specific collection protocol to plan your collection methodology and sampling schemes.
Add DNA Analysis to My Study
Considerations for adding Salivary DNA to analyte Studies:
You can combine salivary analytes with easy, accurate, and affordable genomic testing using Salimetrics SalivaLab and the same sample that you are already collecting – no specialized saliva collection devices or additional samples are required.
Don’t know what SNPs are right for you? The SalivaLab’s DNA team specializes in genetic testing services, we recommend you Request a DNA Consult (gratis) to learn more about common considerations such as # of samples, participant ethnicity, and IRB Approval.
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References & Salivary DHEA Research
- Kroboth, P.D., Salek, F.S., Pittenger, A.L., et al. (1999). DHEA and DHEA-S: A review. J Clin Pharmacol, 39(4), 327-48.
- Labrie, F. (2010). DHEA, important source of sex steroids in men and even more in women. Prog Brain Res, 182, 97-148.
- Labrie, F., Bélanger, A., Cusan, L., Candas, B. (1997). Physiological changes in dehydroepiandrosterone are not reflected by serum levels of active androgens and estrogens but of their metabolites: Intracrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 82(8), 2403-9.
- Labrie, F., Luu-The, V. Bélanger, A., et al. (2005). Is dehydroepiandrosterone a hormone? J Endocrinol, 187, 169-96.
- Maninger, N., Wolkowitz, O.M., Reus, V.I., et al. (2009). Neurobiological and neuropsychiatric effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS). Front Neuroendocrinol, 30(1), 65-91.
- Dillon, J.S. (2005). Dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related steroids: Their role in inflammatory, allergic and immunological disorders. Curr Drug Targets Infl Allergy, 4(3), 377-85.
- Widstrom, R., Dillon, J.S. (2004). Is there a receptor for dehydroepiandrosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate? Semin Repro Med, 22(4), 289-98.
- Baulieu, E.-E., Robel, P. (1998). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA) as neuroactive neurosteroids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95(8), 4089-91.
- Charalampopoulos, I., Alexaki, V.-I., Tsatsanis, C., et al. (2006). Neurosteroids as endogenous inhibitors of neuronal cell apoptosis in aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1088, 139-52.
- Izawa, S. Sugaya, N., Shirotsuki, K., et al. (2008). Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone secretion in response to acute psychosocial stress and its correlations with biological and psychological changes. Biol Psych, 79(3), 294-98.
- Goodyer, I.M., Herbert, J., Altham, P.M., et al. (1996). Adrenal secretion during major depression in 8- to 16-year-olds, I. Altered diurnal rhythms in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at presentation. Psychol Med, 26(2), 245-56.
- Young, A.H., Gallagher, P., Porter, R. (2002). Elevation of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry, 159(7), 1237-39.
- Harris, D.S., Wolkowitz, O.M., Reus, V.I. (2001). Movement disorder, memory, psychiatric symptoms and serum DHEA levels in schizophrienic and schizoaffective patients. World J Biol Psychiatry, 2(2), 99-102.
- Christeff, N., Gherbi, N., Mammes, O., et al. (1997). Serum cortisol and DHEA concentrations during HIV infection. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22 (Suppl. 1), S11-18.
- Rosenfeld, R.S., Rosenberg, B.J., Fukushima, D.K., Hellman, L. (1975). 24-Hour secretory pattern of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 40(5), 850-5.
- Longcope, C. (1995). Metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 774, 143-48.
- Simon, J.A. (2002). Estrogen replacement therapy: Effect on the endogenous androgen milieu. Fertil Steril, 77 (Suppl 4), S77-82.)
- Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Symons, R.G. (1983). Hormones in saliva: Mode of entry and consequent implications for clinical interpretation. Clin Chem, 29(10), 1752-56.
- Shirtcliff, E.A., Granger, D.A., Schwartz, E., Curran, M.J. (2001). Use of salivary biomarkers in biobehavioral research: Cotton-based sample collection methods can interfere with salivary immunoassay results. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26(2), 165-73.)